Information about common STIs
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are passed from one person to another through unprotected sex or genital, oral or anal contact.
Anyone who has sex can get an STI, you don’t need to have lots of sexual partners. Both men and women can get and pass on STIs.
Find out more information about common STIs below.
Chlamydia is the most common STI in the UK. It is easily passed on during sex. Most people don't experience any symptoms, so they are unaware they're infected.
In women, chlamydia can cause pain or a burning sensation when urinating, a vaginal discharge, pain in the lower abdomen during or after sex, and bleeding during or after sex or between periods.
In men, chlamydia can cause pain or a burning sensation when urinating, a discharge from the tip of the penis, and pain or tenderness in the testicles.
It is also possible to have a chlamydia infection in your rectum (bottom), throat or eyes
Diagnosing chlamydia is done with a urine test or by taking a swab of the affected area. The infection is easily treated with antibiotics but can lead to serious long-term health problems if left untreated, including infertility.
Genital herpes is a common infection caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), which is the same virus that causes cold sores.
Some people develop symptoms of Herpes a few days after coming into contact with the virus. Small, painful blisters or sores usually develop, which may cause itching or tingling, or make it painful to urinate.
After you've been infected, the virus remains dormant (inactive) most of the time. However, certain triggers can reactivate the virus, causing the blisters to develop again, although they're usually smaller and less painful.
It's easier to test for HSV if you have symptoms. Although there's no cure for genital herpes, the symptoms can usually be controlled using antiviral medicines.
If you are diagnosed with Herpes, it is important to discuss this with your partner; the staff in the clinic can help support you with this if necessary.
Genital warts are small fleshy growths, bumps or skin changes that appear on or around your genital or anal area. They're caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV) and are the second most common STI in the UK.
Warts are usually painless, but you may notice some itching and discomfort. Occasionally, they can cause bleeding.
You don't need to have penetrative sex to pass the infection on because HPV is spread by skin-to-skin contact.
Several treatments are available for genital warts, including creams and freezing treatment (cryotherapy).
Gonorrhoea is a bacterial STI easily passed on during sex. About 50% of women and 10% of men don't experience any symptoms and are unaware they're infected.
In women, Gonorrhoea can cause pain or a burning sensation when urinating, a vaginal discharge (often watery, yellow or green), pain in the lower abdomen during or after sex, and bleeding during or after sex or between periods, sometimes causing heavy periods.
In men, Gonorrhoea can cause pain or a burning sensation when urinating, a white, yellow or green discharge from the tip of the penis, and pain or tenderness in the testicles.
It is also possible to have a Gonorrhoea infection in your rectum, throat or eyes.
Gonorrhoea is diagnosed using a urine test or by taking a swab of the affected area. The infection is easily treated with antibiotics, but can lead to serious long-term health problems if left untreated, including infertility.
Hepatitis B is very infectious (100 times more infectious than HIV) and very easily transmitted through unprotected sex or by sharing needles to inject drugs. Most people who contract hepatitis B do not have symptoms. If symptoms do occur they can appear one to six months after coming into contact with the virus. The infection can persist for many years and silently cause severe liver damage, including cirrhosis, liver failure and liver cancer.
In most people a full course of vaccination prevents infection.
The following people should consider having the hepatitis B vaccination:
- Men who have sex with men
- Anyone who has recently injected drugs
- Anyone who has been paid for sex
- Anyone who has a sexual partner with Hepatitis B infection
- Anyone who has been recently sexually assaulted.
HIV is most commonly passed on through unprotected sex. It can also be transmitted by coming into contact with infected blood – for example, sharing needles to inject drugs or steroids.
The HIV virus attacks and weakens the immune system, making it less able to fight infections and disease. There's no cure for HIV, but there are treatments that allow most people to live a long and otherwise healthy life.
AIDS is the final stage of an HIV infection, when your body can no longer fight life-threatening infections.
Most people with HIV look and feel healthy and have no symptoms. When you first develop HIV, you may experience a flu-like illness with a fever, sore throat or rash. This is called a seroconversion illness.
A simple blood test is usually used to test for an HIV infection. In our clinics we also offer a rapid test using a finger-prick blood test if you are at higher risk of HIV.
Molluscum contagiosum is a common and generally harmless viral infection of the skin. It is contagious (can be caught from another person by direct contact). It is most common in children and young adults, but can occur at any age.
Usually the symptoms of these are skin lesions (Spots), which are asymptomatic, but the spots can be itchy or sore if they become inflamed or infected. They can bleed slightly if scratched.
Pubic lice ("crabs") are easily passed to others through close genital contact. They're usually found in pubic hair, but can live in underarm hair, body hair, beards and occasionally eyebrows or eyelashes.
The lice crawl from hair to hair. It may take several weeks for you to notice any symptoms. Most people experience itching and you may notice the lice or eggs on the hairs.
Pubic lice can be successfully treated with special creams or shampoos available over the counter in most pharmacies, from your GP or sexual health clinic. You don't need to shave off your pubic hair or body hair.
Scabies is caused by tiny mites that burrow into the skin. It can be passed on through close body or sexual contact, or from infected clothing, bedding or towels.
If you develop scabies, you may have intense itching that's worse at night. The itching can be in your genital area, but it also often occurs between your fingers, on wrists and ankles, under your arms, or on your body and breasts.
You may have a rash or tiny spots. In some people, scabies can be confused with eczema. It's usually very difficult to see the mites.
Scabies can be successfully treated using special creams or shampoos available over the counter in most pharmacies, from a GP or sexual health clinic. The itching can sometimes continue for a short period, even after effective treatment
Syphilis is a bacterial infection that in the early stages causes a painless, but highly infectious, sore on your genitals. The sore can last up to six weeks before disappearing.
Secondary symptoms such as a rash and a flu-like illness may then develop. These may disappear within a few weeks, after which you'll have no symptoms.
The symptoms of syphilis can be difficult to recognize. A simple blood test can be used to diagnose syphilis at any stage. The condition can be treated with antibiotics, usually penicillin injections. When syphilis is treated properly, the later stages can be prevented.
More information about Syphilis can be found here.
Trichomoniasis is an STI caused by a tiny parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). It can be easily passed on through sex and most people don't know they're infected.
In women, trichomoniasis can cause a frothy yellow or watery vaginal discharge that has an unpleasant smell, soreness or itching around the vagina, and pain when passing urine.
In men, trichomoniasis rarely causes symptoms. You may experience pain or burning after passing urine, a whitish discharge, or an inflamed foreskin.
Trichomoniasis can sometimes be difficult to diagnose but in our clinics we are experienced at diagnosing this infection. We use a microscope to do this. Once diagnosed, it can be treated with antibiotics.